US Lodges WTO Challenge Over India Renewable Energy Incentives
The US has filed a formal challenge at the WTO regarding India's support policies for solar energy, Washington officials announced last week. At issue in the complaint is a local content requirement in the Asian country's national solar programme, which Washington claims discriminates against foreign solar equipment manufacturers in favour of their domestic counterparts.
The challenge comes amid growing questions over the degree to which countries can help support their burgeoning renewable energy sectors, particularly given the global trade arbiter's recent panel ruling regarding a similar programme in the Canadian province of Ontario. (See Bridges Weekly, 19 December 2012) The Canada dispute, which had been tabled at the WTO by the EU and Japan and also involved a local content requirement, is currently facing appeals from all parties.
US officials have stressed that the India-focused complaint targets only the Asian nation's local content requirement, and not the overall objective of developing renewable energy sources.
"Let me be clear: the United States strongly supports the rapid deployment of solar energy around the world, including with India," US Trade Representative Ron Kirk said in announcing the US challenge. "Unfortunately, India's discriminatory policies in its national solar programme detract from that successful cooperation, raise the cost of clean energy, and undermine progress toward our shared objective."
The benefits of local content requirements (LCRs) have long been a controversial topic. While countries often pursue multiple policy objectives through LCRs in the renewable energy sector, primarily to green their economy and to foster the sector's domestic development, while in parallel stimulating employment and investment, some analysts have noted that domestic content requirements might instead increase costs of energy, reduce competition, and therefore potentially slow down innovation.
India's programme - known formally as the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (NSM) - was launched in 2010, with the goal of deploying 20,000 MW of solar panels through an interconnected grid by 2022. According to the country's Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, the scheme aims to reduce the cost of solar power generation in India, specifically via long-term policy, large-scale deployment targets, intensive research and development, and domestic production of the necessary raw materials and components.
"The objective of the National Solar Mission is to establish India as a global leader in solar energy, by creating the policy conditions for its diffusion across the country as quickly as possible," according to the programme's mission statement.
One of the mission's goals, the statement says, is to undertake an international leadership role in the area of solar manufacturing across different stages of the value chain, in "leading edge solar technologies." In doing so, it is hoping to achieve a 4-5 GW equivalent of installed capacity by 2020, which would include developing manufacturing capacities for polysilicon material that would allow for the production of approximately 2 GW capacity of solar cells annually.
Washington: Policy gives domestic producers unfair advantage
Under the current phase of India's programme, the US says, New Delhi has required developers of photovoltaic projects using crystalline silicon technology to use solar cells and modules made domestically.
"As a result, solar power developers, or their successors in contract, receive certain benefits and advantages, including subsidies through guaranteed, long-term tariffs for electricity, contingent on their purchase and use of solar cells and solar modules of domestic origin," Washington says in its complaint, arguing that this violates the WTO's rules on national treatment.
Washington also argues that the measure constitutes an illegal subsidy, due to it allegedly providing a subsidy that depends on the use of domestic goods over their imported counterparts.
Among other concerns, the US claims that the Indian measures at issue have not been appropriately notified, thus violating the Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM) Agreement. In its consultations request, Washington also argues that the policies "appear to nullify or impair" the benefits due to the US directly or indirectly under this agreement, as well as the WTO's General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMS) Agreement.
The upcoming phase of the programme would extend the local content requirement to cover more types of equipment imports, which the Office of the USTR says is also cause for concern.
The planned changes to the scheme would involve expanding the NSM local content requirement to include solar thin film technologies, which make up most of the US' solar exports to the Asian country. Over half of the projects under NSM have relied on imported thin films, which has been credited for prompting New Delhi to propose bringing these into the local content requirement.
Given that the majority of US solar exports involve solar film technologies, US companies are "not actually bothered by domestic sourcing of solar modules" under the current phase of the programme, one Indian trade official commented to The Hindu. The official speculated that the planned changes could have influenced the timing of the US complaint.
New Delhi officials quickly responded to Washington's challenge, arguing that the requirement has not substantially reduced imports of equipment and that its policy is in line with WTO rules.
The domestic content provision has been applied to only "a few projects totaling 350 megawatts (MW)," Tarun Kapoor, joint secretary at the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, told Reuters. India's total capacity for solar generation is 1200 MW, compared to 18 MW three years ago when NSM was in its infancy. India is currently building 1000 MW of solar power plants and will soon be building an additional 2000 MW, the official added, noting that this new capacity will not be subject to a local content requirement.
In the past, India has also argued that the scheme qualifies as government procurement and is thus exempt from national treatment requirements, according to Reuters - an argument that New Delhi could potentially try to use if this case reaches the panel stage, some trade observers have speculated.
A similar argument was also made in Canada's WTO row with the US and EU, only for a dispute panel to find that - while the Ontarian measures at issue were government procurement - it was done with a view for commercial resale. The Ontario scheme was therefore not exempt from the national treatment requirements referred to in the GATT, TRIMS, and SCM Agreements. That finding is currently under appeal by Ottawa.
Dispute panel proceedings do not have precedential effect, however, meaning that the results in the Canada dispute would not necessarily apply in India's case, should the latter dispute reach the panel stage.
The request for consultations is the first step in the WTO dispute settlement process. Should the parties to a dispute be unable to reach a resolution after 60 days of talks, the complainant may request the establishment of a panel to hear the complaint.
ICTSD reporting; "The Solar War Heats Up," THE HINDU, 11 February 2013; "Widening Domestic Sourcing Net May Hurt India's Case," THE HINDU, 11 February 2013; "India to consult its solar sector on domestic content issue," SEE NEWS, 11 February 2013; "India Denies Violating WTO Rules on Solar-Product Import," BLOOMBERG NEWS, 07 February 2013; "US Challenges India's Solar Program Restrictions at WTO," REUTERS, 06 February 2013.