Minimizing Conflicts and Maximizing Synergies between Trade and Climate Change Policies

ICTSD Trade & Climate Change Day on the Sidelines of the UNFCCC SB40
11 June 2014
Bonn, Germany, Europe

Trade and climate change are inextricably linked. Trade activities on the one hand can contribute to the causes of climate change, and on the other hand can be part of the solution. At the same time, climate policies can have impacts on trade and trade policies.

Against this background, it is important to ensure that trade and climate policies are mutually supportive. This requires that policymakers and negotiators from both the trade and climate change communities clearly understand and are mindful of the interlinkages. Such an understanding is crucial to enable them to design and implement policies that minimize potential conflicts and maximize the synergies between the international trade regime and climate policies.

It is against this background that ICTSD organised the Trade & Climate Change Day. The event aimed to explore so as to better understand trade and climate change linkages, to the benefit of the climate change community, and more particularly climate negotiators. By targeting the climate change community on the sidelines of the UNFCCC SB 40, we brought together knowledge and analysis, and provided a platform for discussion, favouring the development of concrete solutions to the climate negotiations in the run-up to COP21.

The event was organised into four substantive sessions on specific topics at the trade and climate change interface. The sessions were informed by expert presentations, follwed by interactive discussions. 

11 June 2014

08:45 - 09:00
Registration & Coffee
09:00 - 09:15
Opening: The Trade and Climate Change Context
Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz (Chief Executive, ICTSD)

At a time when mitigation efforts need to be scaled up to unprecedented levels to reach the two degrees Celsius target, pricing carbon becomes an increasingly important part in the policy mix. If ETSs are well-designed, trading in allowances offers a cost-efficient solution. Linking different domestic ETSs can further increase these efficiencies. Governments are increasingly discussing linking their ETSs with others and the first linkage agreements have been reached. Linkage between ETSs does, however, require some harmonization between key elements of the respective schemes.

This session discussed the potential for ETSs and linkage of such schemes to advance international climate change mitigation efforts. Given the importance of the Clean Development Mechanism for mitigation investments in developing countries and the threats for its future, this session also addressed challenges and opportunities for the international offset market.  



Henry Derwent, Chief Executive, Climate Strategies 

Eunjung Kim, Principle Researcher, Korea Legislation Research Institute

Jo Tyndall, Climate Change Ambassador, New Zealand


Chair: Ingrid Jegou, ICTSD            

Over the past few years, a number of climate-related disputes have entered the WTO dispute settlement system. Most of these cases are related to incentive schemes for renewable energy. In addition, there has also been a significant increase in cases of trade remedies in relation to renewable energy. This development highlights that, depending on the design of measures, there is scope for tension between policies that stimulate the development of climate mitigation options and current trade rules.

This session highlighted the recent development and provided a facts-based overview of the disputes and trade remedy cases, including the countries, sectors and policies that are concerned. Second, it reflected upon potential systemic impacts of these disputes and cases on future climate policies. Third, it explored whether recent case law has contributed to better defining the margin of maneuver of countries when designing climate change policies.  



Daniel Bodansky, Lincoln Professor of Law, Ethics and Sustainability, Arizona State University 

Thomas Brewer, Senior Fellow, ICTSD

Inger Holten, Senior Adviser, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Amelia Porges, Law offices of Amelia Porges


Chair: Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz, ICTSD

Steadily rising demand for food and agricultural products in the developing world, combined with a slower growth rate in agricultural productivity, is likely to continue complicating the task of ensuring access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food for all. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this challenge, not least due to a projected increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events.

Policies on farm trade affect the ability of countries both to adapt to climate change, and to mitigate it through reduced GHG emissions. In a new environment of rising and more volatile food prices, measures such as biofuel policies and farm export restrictions have exposed the growing need to update existing rules on farm trade in order to ensure that governments can respond effectively to food security challenges in a changing climate.

This session provided an opportunity to explore policy responses to these emerging issues with leading global experts on farm trade, food security and climate change.



Giovanni Anania, Professor, University of Calabria

David Blandford, Professor of Agricultural & Environmental Economics, Penn State University

Fred Kossam, Head of Climate Change and Research at the Department of Climate Change and Meteorological Services, Malawi


Chair: Jonathan Hepburn, ICTSD

The large scale diffusion of climate change technologies is critical to addressing the climate change challenge and advancing sustainable development. Trade liberalization and investment flows can contribute to technology diffusion and innovation, while trade restrictions tend to reduce the supply of intermediate goods to an economy, raising costs of delivering downstream climate-friendly products and services as well as hampering productivity and technology dissemination. At the same time, absorptive capacity plays a key role and the strengthening of national innovation capabilities can improve a country’s ability to engage in and benefit from international trade flows.

In the case of mitigation technologies, data trends show the increasing importance of many developing countries as exporters of sustainable energy products. However, enabling environments for the transfer and diffusion of adaptation technologies to developing countries need to also include attention to trade regulations.

This session examined the multiple facets of trade in the diffusion of climate change technologies, in particular the potential contribution of sustainable energy trade initiatives (SETIs).



Thomas Brewer, Senior Fellow, ICTSD 

Heleen de Coninck , Associate Professor, University of Nijmegen

Peter Govindasamy, Director, International Trade Cluster, Singapore Ministry of Trade and Industry

Gerard Owens, Coordinator Public Policy Issues, European Patent Office


Chair: Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz, ICTSD

Ricardo MELÉNDEZ-ORTIZ is founder and Chief Executive since 1996 of the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD), based in Geneva, Switzerland.

Previously, he co-founded and was General Director of Fundación Futuro Latinoamericano (Quito). He has represented Colombia as a negotiator in several multilateral fora, including as permanent delegate of Colombia in Geneva and as a negotiator in GATT’s Uruguay Round, the Rio’92 UN Conference process, UNCTAD VIII, the Climate Change Convention, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Montreal Protocol. He acted as spokesperson for the G77 in several fora and served as chair of the UN Standing Committees on Commodities and on Trade Preferences. Earlier, he had served as Principal Adviser to the Colombian Minister of Economic Development and as Chief of Administration of the Office of the President of Colombia.

Since 1997, Mr. Meléndez-Ortiz has been the publisher of BRIDGES and its sister publications, and has edited, authored and published a wide range of books, articles and opinion pieces in English, French and Spanish on economic governance, trade, sustainable development and conflict management.

He has served or currently sits on advisory committees and the boards of a number of global policy initiatives, including as Board chairperson of the Meridian Institute (U.S.); World Economic Forum’s Global Future Council on Biodiversity and the Bio-Economy; World Economic Forum’s Stewardship Board on Trade and Investment; a Convener of the 'E15 Initiative’, an international undertaking involving over 400 experts seeking options for the global trade and investment system; Member of the Board of Intellectual Property Watch (Geneva); the Operating Board of AccountAbility (London); the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on Trade and WEF’s Working Group on Trade and Climate Change; The Pardee Center Task Force on Governance for a Green Economy (U of Boston); The Center for Global Development’s Global Trade Preference Working Group (Washington, DC); The Evian’s Group Brains Trust (IMD); the Global Governance Network of Globus et Locus (Milano); the Steering Committees of DfID’s Global Trade and Finance Architecture Initiative and of UN DESA’s Sustainable Development Knowledge Partnership (New York), a Patron of the Earth Focus Foundation (Geneva); in the recent past he served as Chair of the Global Action Network’s Council (Cambridge, MA); and member of the U.N. Secretary General Millennium Project Task Force on Trade; the WTO’s Director General NGO Advisory Group; and the MOFCOM/IISD China Sustainable Development and Global Markets Task Force.

In 2016 he was an advisor to the G20 China Presidency on Trade and Investment, in 2017 co-chair of the T20 Task Force on Trade and Investment during Germany’s G20 Presidency, in 2018 co-chair of T20 Task Force on Trade, Investment and Tax Cooperation during Argentina’s G20 Presidency and in 2018/2019 co-chair of T20 Task Force for Trade, Investment and Globalization during Japan’s G20 Presidency.

Since 2015, he is part of the Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA) Global Digital Futures Policy Forum.

Mr. Meléndez-Ortiz, a graduate of Harvard University, has recently co-authored the New Industrial Revolution: Upgrading Trade and Investment Frameworks for Digitalization (21 August 2018) with Axel Berger: this policy brief was produced by the T20 Task Force on Trade, Investment and Tax Cooperation under the G20 Presidency of Argentina in 2018; Renforcer le système international du commerce et de l’investissement au 21ème siècle (1 December 2016) with Richard Samans; The Law and Economics of a Sustainable Energy Trade Agreement (30 August 2016) with Gary Hufbauer, Richard Samans; Envisioning China’s G20 Presidency: Proposals for the global trade and investment regime in the 21st century (19 March 2016); Strengthening the Global Trade and Investment System in the 21st Century, Synthesis Report, under the E15Initiative (22 January 2016) with Richard Samans, Harsha V. Singh, Sean Doherty; Enabling the Energy Transition and Scale-up of Clean Energy Technologies: Options for the Global Trade System, under the E15Initiative (22 January 2016)Envisioning a Sustainable Development Agenda for Trade and Environment (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007) with A. Najam and M. Halle, and co-edited Rebuilding Global Trade: Proposals for A Fairer, More Sustainable Future(Global Economic Governance Programme at Oxford U. and ICTSD, 2009) with C. Deere; Agricultural Subsidies In The WTO Green Box: Ensuring Coherence With Sustainable Development Goals (Cambridge University Press, 2009) with C. Bellmann and J. Hepburn; Intellectual Property and Sustainable Development, Agendas in a Changing World(Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009) with P. Roffe; and, WTO Dispute Settlement: The Developing CountryExperience (Cambridge U. Press, forthcoming November 2010) with G. Shaffer. He holds the Colombian nationality and is a resident of Switzerland where he lives with his wife and two daughters.

Giovanni Anania was Professor of International Trade, Trade Policies and Economics of Agro-Food Markets in the Department of Economics, Statistics and Finance at the University of Calabria, Italy. Giovanni obtained a degree in Economics from the University of Calabria and holds a MA in Social Science Data Analysis from the University of Essex (UK), a MSc and a PhD in Agricultural Economics from the University of California, Davis.

He served as a consultant to many international institutions, such as the European Union, the United Nations' Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Giovanni authored numerous scientific publications in the fields of EU agricultural and trade policies, WTO negotiations on agriculture, and quantitative methods for the analysis of the effects of agricultural and trade policies.

David Blandford is a professor of agricultural and environmental economics, and former department head, in the Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology and Education at the Pennsylvania State University. He obtained his PhD in agricultural economics from the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Blandford was formerly a division director at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in Paris and a professor at Cornell University. He has twice served as chair of the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium – an organization composed of researchers from government, academia and industry. Blandford was president of the Agricultural Economics Society of the United Kingdom in 2010/11. He teaches courses in agribusiness at Penn State and conducts research into food and agricultural policies, including their environmental, trade and rural development aspects. Recent research has focused on WTO commitments on agricultural support and the implications of climate change policies for agriculture. Blandford has served as a consultant on policy issues for a range of international organizations including the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Food Policy Research Institute, the OECD, and the World Bank.

Daniel M. Bodansky’s teaching and research focus on public international law, international environmental law, and the international climate change regime in particular.

Prior to his arrival at ASU’s Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law in 2010, Professor Bodansky was the Associate Dean for Faculty Development and Emily and Ernest Woodruff Chair in International Law at the University of Georgia School of Law from 2002-2009, and was a faculty member at the University of Washington School of Law from 1989-2002. He has served as the climate change coordinator and attorney-advisor at the U.S. Department of State, in addition to consulting for the United Nations in the areas of climate change and tobacco control. Since 2001, Professor Bodansky has worked with the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (formerly the Pew Center on Global Climate Change) as a consultant and adviser. He has served on the board of editors of the American Journal of International Law, is the U.S.-nominated arbitrator under the Antarctic Environment Protocol, and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the American Society of International Law. Awards include an International Affairs Fellowship from the Council of Foreign Relations, a Pew Faculty Fellowship in International Affairs, and a Jean Monnet Fellowship from the European University Institute.

Professor Bodansky’s book, The Art and Craft of International Environmental Law (Harvard University Press 2010) received the 2011 Harold & Margaret Sprout Award from the International Studies Association as the best book in the field of international environmental politics.  He also co-edited the Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law (Oxford 2006) and has authored dozens of articles and book chapters on international law, international environmental law and climate change policy.

Professor Bodansky received his undergraduate degree from Harvard College, an M.Phil. in the History and Philosophy of Science from Cambridge University, and his law degree from Yale Law School, where he was a member of the Yale Law Journal

Thomas L. Brewer is a Senior Fellow at the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) in Geneva; he is also Convener of the E15 group on Measures to Address Climate Change and the Trade System, as well as member of the E15 group on Global Trade and Investment Architecture.

His current research focuses on the intersections of climate change issues with international trade, investment and technology transfer issues. He has developed a proposal for an Arctic Black Carbon (ABC) agreement, which is discussed in an ICTSD policy paper and in an associated blog and article for ICTSD.

He was a Lead Author of the chapter on International Cooperation in the most recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). He was a participant in a workshop in July 2015 in Beijing on “Bilateral Cooperation between China and the United States: Facilitating Progress on Climate-Change Policy." The workshop was co-organized by the Harvard Project on Climate Agreements and the Chinese National Center for Climate Change Strategy and International Cooperation.

He has had recurring short-term appointments as a Visiting Senior Research Fellow at Oxford University in the Smith School for Enterprise and the Environment, and he has been a Schöller Foundation Senior Research Fellow at Friedrich-Alexander University in Nuremberg, Germany. He is an Associate Fellow of the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) in Brussels, and an emeritus faculty member of Georgetown University in Washington, DC.

He is the author of a Cambridge University Press book published in 2014: The United States in a Warming World: The Political Economy of Government, Business and Public Responses to Climate Change. He is the editor and author of the introduction to a symposium on climate-and-trade issues in the refereed journal The World Economy. His other publications include articles in the refereed journals Climate Policy and Energy Policy, as well as chapters in books published by the Brookings Institution, Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press and other leading publishers. He has been a consultant to the World Bank, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).






Heleen de Coninck is associate professor in innovation studies and sustainability at the Institute for Science, Innovation and Society (ISIS) at Radboud University Nijmegen’s Faculty of Science. Before joining the university, she worked for over 10 years on international energy and climate policy at the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the largest energy research institute in the country.

Her main field of work is climate change mitigation and policy analysis, in particular at the international level, and she has conducted research and consultancy for among others the European Commission, UNFCCC, UNIDO, UNEP, the World Bank and various governments and private sector actors. From 2002-2005, she was part of the Technical Support Unit of the IPCC Working Group III, where she coordinated the Special Report on Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage. From 2008 to 2012, she managed a group of researchers focussing on international climate policy, energy and development, and technology transfer, and acted as programme manager for ECN Policy Studies. She has worked in the European Union, the United States, China, Indonesia, India, South Africa, Botswana, Ghana, Mozambique and Brazil, amongst other countries. Currently, Heleen is also the chair of Climate Strategies, a climate policy research network that aims to improve the linkage between climate policy research and the negotiations at the European and UN level. 

Heleen graduated in Chemistry and in Environmental Science, specialisation climate change and atmospheric chemistry, from Radboud University. After her studies, she worked as atmospheric chemistry researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry. In 2009, she finished a PhD on technology in the international climate regime at the VU University Amsterdam in collaboration with Princeton University in the United States and ECN. Heleen has lived in Germany, the United States, Mexico and The Netherlands. 

Henry Derwent is Senior Advisor at Climate Strategies, the London-based international research grouping of universities and think-tanks focussed on the interface between climate and energy research and the policy world.

Henry was CEO of the International Emissions Trading Association for five years before joining Climate Strategies, and remains Honorary Vice-President there.  Before IETA, he was for a long period the UK Government’s lead official on international, European and domestic climate change and other environmental pollution issues, including a spell in 10 Downing Street.

Peter Govindasamy works for Singapore’s Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI). As Director of the International Trade Cluster, he is overseeing WTO Policy and Negotiations; the economic aspects of UN Climate Change Negotiations; and Goods, Services & Investment Policy and Negotiations. Before joining the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI), he spent 8 years with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA). At MFA, he worked on Foreign Economic Policy issues, European Union matters and International Organisations such as the ILO, IAEA, WTO and the UN. Since joining MTI in 1998, he has had extensive FTA experience as lead negotiator for Services, and Rules issues in a number of Singapore’s FTAs. In addition, he  served two stints in Geneva, 1995-98 (as First Secretary) and 2003-09 (as Counsellor). Between 2005-09, he chaired the WTO-DDA negotiations on Domestic Regulations in Services, and  has circulated a draft text. He also served as the Vice-Chairman of the Committee on Import Licensing Measures in 2005 and 2006. He has further chaired the ASEAN-India FTA (Services) negotiations. Peter is also lead for Singapore’s Investment Guarantee Agreement (IGA) negotiations. He concluded the IGA negotiations with Iran (in 2011) and Colombia (in 2013). 

Aside from his foreign and trade policy and negotiations experience, Peter has also had a stint in MTI’s Energy Division. He is a member of the Singapore's delegation to the UNFCCC negotiations. He holds a honours degree (2nd Class Upper Division) in Economics from  the National University of Singapore, and an LLM in International Commercial Law (with distinction) from the University of Nottingham (United Kingdom). The LLM course was done in the context of the Raffles-Chevening Scholarship programme.

Inger Holten is a Senior Adviser in the Department for UN, Peace and Humanitarian Affairs of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In January 2013 she took up her current position covering environmental policy issues relating to UNEP, UNCCD, CBD and trade/environment. She has been part of the Norwegian negotiation team to numerous negotiations of environmental agreements and instruments and trade agreements. After completing her studies in 1998, she worked primarily in the Legal Affairs Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, starting out with international trade law and intellectual property law and policy before moving on to treaty law and from 2006 mainly international environmental law. She has worked on WTO disputes and acted as an Agent before the European Court of Justice and the EFTA Court and is on the WTO Indicative List of Panelists (nominated by Norway). Inger Holten has also worked for the Norwegian Ministry of the Environment, been posted to the Norwegian Embassy in Canberra (as First Secretary) and taught international law at the University of Oslo. She has a Masters degree (MA) in Law and a Bachelors degree (BA) in Natural Sciences from the University of Oslo.

Eunjung Kim is Research Fellow at the Korea Legislation Research institute (KLRI). Before she joined KLRI in 2011, she has worked for the Korean Ministry of Justice, the Boston Federal Reserve and the BK21 SKKU Global Business Research Group. She has also been a researcher at the Institute for Comparative Legal Studies since 2005. Eunjung holds a Doctor of Law, as well as a Bachelor and Master of Law, from Sungkyunkwan University (Korea). She also holds an LLM from Boston University. Eunjung has been working extensively on environmental law issues and has published several studies on carbon markets.

Fred is Head of Climate Change and Research Services at the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Management in the Department of Climate Change and Meteorological Services, Malawi. He is a member of the UNFCCC Adaptation Committee and National Technical Team lead for the NAPs in Malawi. Trained at the University of Reading in climate change sciences, Fred has been very instrumental in the development of climate change programmes in Malawi for government and other institutions. Fred is Climate Change Negotiator for Malawi in the climate change negotiations on adaptation issues and lead negotiator on Agriculture for African Group of Negotiators.

Ged is responsible for coordinating initiatives relating to Public Policy Issues at the EPO. The major area of interest concerns the interactions between the global patent system and climate change discussions, including Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Technologies. Other areas include the interactions between the patent system and international standards development, culminating in modern “smart phones”. Patents and Life Sciences is also a key area, including public health, genetic resources, and traditional knowledge. Ged liaises with many IGOs and NGOs in these areas, with WIPO, and with the European Commission.  

Ged has been working at the European Patent Office (EPO) in Munich for approximately 25 years. Initially engaged as a patent examiner, he was soon involved in managing business and user-related aspects of computer projects. More recently, Ged was engaged in International Cooperation at the EPO, including the "IP5 Cooperation" with the patent offices of China, Japan, Korea and the US, and WIPO in Geneva. 


Amy Porges advises companies, governments and trade associations on how to use WTO law, trade agreements and investment rules to solve complex market access problems.  She represents governments and stakeholders in negotiations and litigation in the WTO and free trade agreements, and advises on WTO and trade agreement institutions and compliance. Her recent work focuses on trade issues for renewable energy and climate change, free trade agreement dispute settlement, trade in digital products and services, market access negotiations for services and for information technology products, technical barriers to trade, TPP and TTIP, and she has worked with a wide range of industrial and agricultural sectors.  She draws on experience as USTR’s Senior Counsel for Dispute Settlement, as a Senior Legal Officer in the GATT Secretariat during the Uruguay Round, and in major international law firms. She teaches international trade law at Johns Hopkins University and has published widely in trade law. She is a member of the Roster of External Counsel of the Advisory Centre for WTO Law in Geneva. 

Jo Tyndall is co-Chair of the APA (ad hoc working group on the Paris Agreement). She was New Zealand’s Climate Change Ambassador and head of delegation to the United Nations climate negotiations with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade from July 2010 until March 2016. She held a Vice President position on the Bureau of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, representing the regional grouping of Western European and Other States, in 2014 and 2015. Prior to her role as Climate Change Ambassador, Jo Tyndall was Director of the Broadcasting Unit in the Ministry for Culture and Heritage. From 1999 to 2006, she was Chief Executive of the broadcasting funding body, NZ On Air. She has also served as Chief Executive of two screen industry organisations - the Screen Production and Development Association (SPADA) and Project Blue Sky (1994 to 1999). Jo Tyndall began her career as a multilateral trade policy specialist with the Department of Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

Venue: Gustav-Stresemann-Institute (GSI), Langer Grabenweg 68, Bonn, Germany

The Gustav-Stresemann-Institute (GSI) is within five-minutes walking distance from the Maritim Hotel and will address various topics in distinct session, providing participants with the flexibility to attend any session of interest.

We hope that you will be able to join us for the Trade & Climate Change Day. Please register at your earliest convenience and do not hesitate to contact Ms Sonja Hawkins ( ) with any questions.

Date: Wednesday, 11 June 2014

Time: 09:00-17:15