Brazil's Response to the Judicialized WTO Regime: Strengthening the State through Diffusing Expertise
SummaryThis study examines how Brazil has adapted institutionally to respond to these changes at the international level and defend its interests in international trade disputes. These transformations have occurred within government ministries and in the private sector, including in trade associations, consultancies, think tanks, academia and civil society organizations. Brazil has diffused expertise on international trade matters outside of the traditional Foreign Ministry (Itamaraty) to include broader public-private networks with the aim of enhancing Brazilian capacity to respond to these international institutional challenges. The result has not been the weakening of the state (as argued by some scholars), but the strengthening of Brazil's capacity to play a more active role in response to a new international context, with a focus on the more legalized and judicialized WTO regime. The organization of, and the relationship between, the Brazilian state and private sector, however, has significantly changed in the process.